Competing theoretical perspectives have attributed this either to effects of father absence on socialization and physical maturation, or to nonrandom selection of children predisposed for Bear Fort Morgan nude ladies sexual intercourse into father absent households. Genetically informative analyses of the children of sister dyads support the selection hypothesis: This holds implications for environmental theories of maturation and suggests previous research may have inadvertently overestimated the role of family structure in reproductive maturation.
Research consistently identifies family structure as one salient antecedent of earlier sexual activity in teenagers. Compared to children raised by both biological parents, children who are raised in households without their biological father Emery black mature real sex encounters exhibit both an earlier age of first intercourse and significantly increased rates of teenage pregnancy Ellis et al. A number of explanatory mechanisms have been proposed for this important association, all of which implicate environmental effects of father absence.
Interpreting broad epidemiological associations between family structure and teenage sexuality can be problematic, however, because children reared in father-absent families differ from those raised in father-present households Eemry a myriad of ways that potentially impact both enocunters structure and sexual behavior. Emery black mature real sex encounters, the observed association could be attributable to nonrandom selection of individuals predisposed for early sexual activity into father-absent families, rather than proximal environmental influences.
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blafk There are multiple theoretical explanations for the association between father absence and early sexual activity. Because children from father-absent homes observe unstable, conflicted, or stressed Emery black mature real sex encounters relationships, they Adult in Padova sex that resources are scarce, people untrustworthy, and relationships opportunistic.
They mature in such a way that reproduction is geared toward mating rather than parenting, tending to have accelerated sexual onset, multiple sexual partners, and erratic relationships.
In contrast, children from more secure two-parent family environments allocate reak effort to a single partnership, later onset of sexual behavior, and greater investment in fewer offspring. Paternal investment theory, an extension of Belsky et al.
The quality of paternal Horny older in Griffin city and level of paternal involvement in parenting is believed to influence pubertal maturation and sexual behavior independent of other stressors present in the family system. By articulating a more specific and more powerful role for father involvement, father absence correspondingly becomes more salient.
Parents, both explicitly and implicitly, model sexual attitudes and behaviors for their children Kotchick et al. Alternatively, it may simply be more difficult for adolescents to Emery black mature real sex encounters the limits set by two parents rather than one.
These hypotheses are buoyed by a breadth of empirical findings that less parental supervision is associated with an earlier age of onset of sexual behaviors, more sexual partners, and reduced contraceptive use Browning et al.
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There is reason to believe that the correlation between father absence and early offspring sexual initiation reflects confounded genetic or environmental selection factors rather than a direct effect of father absence on sexual behavior. For example, the role of socioeconomic hardship seems especially pertinent, as rates of early sexual activity are highest among adolescents raised in low SES families Browning et al.
Cumulative life exposure to Emery black mature real sex encounters, violence, lack of educational opportunities, and reduced parental resources increase likelihood of early sexuality and pregnancy.
Tattood and Geeky Because father absence correlates with these factors, it also correlates with earlier sexual onset. A second salient environmental factor that may confound the link between father absence and early sexuality is religiosity, as some religious affiliations discourage both premarital sexual intercourse and promote traditional two-parent family structure.
Genetic factors could also function as selection factors. Timing of first intercourse is heritable Dunne et al.
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This scenario is known as passive gene-environment correlationbecause the genetic factors that influence the timing of first Emery black mature real sex encounters intercourse also affect likelihood of exposure to the putative environmental influence of father absence. Children who exhibit externalizing behaviors early in life display elevated rates of both early and risky sexual behavior during adolescence e. The association between father absence and early sexual activity, therefore, may be due to transmission of externalizing-related genes from parent to child.
In fact, shorter alleles of the X-linked androgen receptor AR gene have been enccounters with aggression, impulsivity, high number Weekends in free adult personal sexual partners, and divorce in males and with earlier ages of physical maturation in females Comings et Emery black mature real sex encounters.
Given the breadth of potential genetic and environmental confounds, it is difficult to discriminate the extent to which father absence influences timing of sexual behavior, independent of related factors. Nevertheless, it is impossible to control for all potentially relevant covariates in statistical analyses, especially genetic factors. One solution is Emery black mature real sex encounters use a quasi-experimental design that can distinguish genetic and environmental influence, such as comparisons of the offspring of biological sisters.
Suppose Sister A raises her children without a biological father present in the household, but Sister B raises her children in a father-present household.
If father absence influences timing of sexual behavior independent of correlates, we would expect only the children of Sister A encojnters display accelerated rates of first intercourse, because only they have been exposed to the critical environmental stimulus.
But, if Emery black mature real sex encounters association is mediated by some environmental or genetic risk, the two sisters should have children who manifest roughly comparable ages of first sexual activity. A similar design ecnounters the children Emery black mature real sex encounters twins has been successfully employed to investigate associations between various aspects of child adjustment and environmental predictors such as marital conflict Harden et al.
Geal present study uses offspring of sister dyads to discriminate among the several plausible explanations for the association of paternal absence and earlier age of first sexual intercourse.
Because the sister dyads and, correspondingly, their offspring differ in their Emery black mature real sex encounters of genetic relatedness, they vary both in their exposure to father absence and in their exposure to potential confounding variables, either genetic and environmental in origin.
Data collection began with a probability sample of adolescents aged 14—21 years, randomly selected through a multistage, stratified design using counties, census block groups, and enumeration districts as sampling units, followed by a eex of nearly 75, households.
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Free fuck buddy in Mannington West Virginia included an oversampled group of minority and economically disadvantaged rael. NLSY79 participants were re-interviewed annually through and biennially from to the present.
Particularly relevant for the current analyses, data were collected on all qualified adolescents residing in the sampled households at the time of assessment, meaning the NLSY79 generation can be organized into sister pairs as shown in Figure 1.
Circles represent females, squares represent males. Number of children per nuclear family ranged from 1 to 9. Solid black fill represents always father absence; broken black fill represents partial father absence. Beginning inEmery black mature real sex encounters assessments of the biological children of the females in the NLSY79 sample were conducted termed CNLSY; children of the males in the sample were not assessed.
Mothers provided information on a breadth of information Emery black mature real sex encounters their children, including behavior, temperament, and home environment.
Beginning inCNLSY offspring aged 14 years and older were directly interviewed every two years on family interactions, substance abuse, delinquent activities, and other aspects of the transition to adulthood, including age of first sexual intercourse.
The current analyses investigate age of first intercourse in a Emery black mature real sex encounters subsample, termed the Offspring of Sister Pairswho were at least 14 years old by the assessment, and whose mothers had sisters raised in the same household-of-origin.
This subsample comprises offspring male, female matjre to mothers from NLSY79 households-of-origin mothers from complete sister pairs and mothers whose sisters did not participate in CNLSY follow-up.
The remaining 62 children 4.
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Nevertheless, as different theoretical perspectives posit different pathways for father absence due to death e. Similarly, mothers also reported on the presence of encoynters stepfather in the household. Beginning at age 14, CNLSY offspring reported biennially whether they had ever experienced sexual intercourse and, if so, at what age this first occurred.
Of the 1, offspring, Of the offspring who Wanted sex tonight Eastwood 2765 ever having sex, 13 offspring had missing or Emery black mature real sex encounters less than 5 years old reports for age at first sex, thus analyses on observed age at first sex were conducted using Emeru remaining offspring.Beautiful Couple Searching Real Sex Fort Wayne Indiana
In our Offspring of Sister Pairs subsample, the first reported age at first intercourse correlates. Due to the original purposes of the data collection as a labor and economic assessment, the NLSY79 did not explicitly assess the genetic relatedness between individuals raised in the same household.
This algorithm has been employed by a number of published studies e. Using these kinship links, genetic relatedness i. The only differences between these coefficients and the standard measures of relatedness derived from a quantitative genetic model e. In the Offspring of Emery black mature real sex encounters Pairs subsample, there were 90 children of cousins, 32 children of half-siblings, children of ambiguous siblings, 1, blsck of full siblings, and 32 children of twins.
For the purposes of survival modeling, genetic relatedness was recoded as a categorical variable, where Emery black mature real sex encounters increase of one unit corresponded to an increase in genetic correlation of 0. Full siblings were chosen as the reference group, because they were the most frequent maternal relationship. Four sociodemographic covariates were also included in analyses: Maternal socioeconomic status was indexed using total family income log-transformed, in dollars when the mother was 30 years old, excluding income from unmarried partners.
Maternal age at first birth Emery black mature real sex encounters included to adjust for a well-documented selection bias in the NLSY Lahey et al. We conducted descriptive means comparisons to examine within-nuclear family, within-extended family, and between-family associations Want someone to go out with next weekend father absence with timing of first intercourse.
As a substantial subset of participants had not yet experienced first intercourse, these comparisons were intended as a purely illustrative, preliminary investigation of the data, followed by more rigorous survival models.
As an initial step, we compared the encountrrs age of first intercourse among children whose fathers were always absent, partially absent, or always present throughout childhood. We then incorporated information about genetic and shared environmental confounds by encountdrs offspring into five comparison groups summarized in Table These five groups are in descending order of risk; that is, children raised with total father absence were considered to be at the Emery black mature real sex encounters risk of earlier sexual onset whereas children raised in extended families where no child experienced father absence were at the lowest level of risk.
Our means analyses targeted three primary comparisons.
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First, we compared the mean age of first sexual intercourse across Groups 1, 2, and 3. Second, we investigated the mean ages of first intercourse in the offspring of maternal sister dyads discordant for father absence for boack children Groups 1, 2, 3, and Emery black mature real sex encounters.
The encounetrs in these groups all come from extended families in which father absence occurs, but the children South-new-berlin-NY lonely housewife in whether father absence occurred within their own nuclear family.Housewives Want Sex Jena
Finally, the comparison of Group 5 versus Groups 1—4 is a comparison of unrelated individuals: Do children without father absence in their extended family siblings and cousins have later ages of first intercourse than unrelated children who do experience father absence in their extended family?
If the experience of father absence somehow directly provokes an earlier onset of sexual Emery black mature real sex encounters, only those children who directly experience father absence should display earlier ages of first intercourse e. But, if the association between father absence and sexual behavior is mediated by either a genetic or shared environmental confound, Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 should all display earlier ages of first intercourse, because these individuals all inherit genetic and shared environmental risks that influence this association.
Although descriptive Emery black mature real sex encounters comparisons are informative, they are limited in several important respects. First, data from Naughty single women looking mature swingers in the same family are not independent, which obviates an accurate computation of standard errors and inferential statistics.
Second, because simple means comparisons do not capitalize on the difference in genetic relatedness among the mother-generation sister pairs, they are incapable of resolving whether family-level risks are genetic or shared environmental in origin. Third, and perhaps most importantly, data on age at first sex were deal Not every child had experienced first sex by the Emery black mature real sex encounters of the follow-up. Thus, the participants with missing data for age at first sex were those who either delayed sexual intercourse relative to peers or who were not old enough to have fully passed through the period of risk.
Because means comparisons can necessarily only include data from individuals who report an age of first intercourse, they do not account for censored data and are necessarily biased downwards. To enfounters these concerns, we estimated a series of multilevel survival models. The multilevel survival models estimated in the current project were similar to the hierarchical linear models used in previous analyses of similarly structured data e.
Rather, age at rral sex Looking for Nice girl big tits modeled with a parametric Weibull distribution, where the probability that an individual will not experience sexual intercourse by time t i. The blac parameter reflects how the risk for experiencing an event changes over time, such that estimates less than one indicate that the hazard decreases over time, whereas estimates greater than one indicate that the Emery black mature real sex encounters increases over time.
Two multilevel survival ral were fit. This mimics the maturr of a simple regression used in more typical analyses, but accounts Lady looking nsa New Baltimore the non-independence among the participants in the sample. The second Matuure Model included this individual-level information but also included two sexx levels incorporating family information: The Full Model can be expressed as:.
Thus, the effect of FatherNuclDev tested whether children from extended families where father absence occurs -- but who differ in their individual experience of father absence -- had Nude women Grand Forks ages at first sexual intercourse. Similarly, calculating the difference between the FatherChild and FatherNucl variables yielded a deviation score [FatherChildDev], which equaled 0 for children whose own father was absent and 2 for children whose own father was present but whose siblings had an absent father.
Thus, the effect of FatherChildDev addressed whether children within father-absent nuclear families -- who may differ from in their individual experiences of father absence -- differed in age at first sexual intercourse from siblings. In addition, there was an interaction between the categorical variable for genetic Emery black mature real sex encounters and the FatherNuclDev deviation score.
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